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The Crusader’s Cross: From the Sunday Times bestselling author comes an unmissable new Ben Hope thriller: Book 24

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Halsall, Paul (ed.). " Selected Sources–The Crusades". Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University. While smaller crosses represent the wounds caused by the nails on his hands and feet, the main cross in the middle represents the wound caused on his side (or heart according to some sources) by the Holy Lance, also known as the Spear of Destiny and the Lance of Longinus, when a Roman soldier stabbed him to make sure he is dead. Spreading The Word of Jesus Christ Murray, Alan V. (2006). "Sigurd Jorsalfar (1090–1130)". In The Crusades: An Encyclopedia. pp. 1112–1113.

Some people believe that the cross of Jerusalem symbolizes the Bible. The cross potent in the middle, which is considered to be made of four tau crosses (in the shape of T letters), is seen as the representation of the Old Testament while the four crosslets are seen as the representation of the New Testament and its four gospels. A Crusader Cross Illustration by Sidhe The Five Crusader Nations The symbol is also used in other instances in the Holy Land and is a popular cross among many Christians for its rich meaning. Many Christians, especially those with a particular connection to Jerusalem or who have made a pilgrimage to the city, choose to wear the Jerusalem Cross as a way to express their faith, commemorate their visit, or display their affiliation with the Christian tradition. Some also choose to have it tattooed on their bodies. The Crusader army marched to the former Byzantine city of Antioch, which had been in Muslim control since 1084. The Crusaders began the siege of Antioch in October 1097 and fought for eight months to a stalemate. [23] Finally, Bohemond persuaded a guard in the city to open a gate. The Crusaders entered, massacring the Muslim inhabitants as well as many Christians. [24] A force to recapture the city was raised by Kerbogha, the Seljuk atabeg of Mosul. Mulinder, Alex (2006). "Ramla, Second Battle of (1102)". In The Crusades: An Encyclopedia. p. 1106.

The modern Flag of Georgia was introduced in 2004 on the basis of the flag of Tbilisi shown in the Pizzigano chart. At about the same time, the cross of Jerusalem in gold on a silver field appears as the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in early armorials such as the Camden Roll. The arms of the King of Jerusalem featured gold on silver (in the case of John de Brienne, silver on gold), a metal on a metal, and thus broke the heraldic Rule of Tincture; this was justified by the fact that Jerusalem was so holy, it was above ordinary rules. The gold and silver were also connected to Psalms 68:13, which mentions a "dove covered in silver, and her feathers with yellow gold". [3] T.C.R. Crafter, A re-examination of the classification and chronology of the cross-and-crosslets type of Henry II, British Numismatic Journal 68.6 (1998), pp. 42–63 and plate 6;

Duncalf, Frederic (1969). " The Councils of Piacenza and Clermont". In Setton,K., A History of the Crusades: Volume I. pp. 220–252.

Urban II equated the crusades for Jerusalem with the ongoing Catholic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and crusades were preached in 1114 and 1118, but it was Pope Callixtus II who proposed dual fronts in Spain and the Middle East in 1122. In the spring of 1147, Eugene authorized the expansion of his mission into the Iberian peninsula, equating these campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. The successful siege of Lisbon, from 1 July to 25 October 1147, was followed by the six-month siege of Tortosa, ending on 30 December 1148 with a defeat for the Moors. [183] In the north, some Germans were reluctant to fight in the Holy Land while the pagan Wends were a more immediate problem. The resulting Wendish Crusade of 1147 was partially successful but failed to convert the pagans to Christianity. [184] By the time of the Second Crusade the three Spanish kingdoms were powerful enough to conquer Islamic territory– Castile, Aragon, and Portugal. [185] In 1212 the Spanish were victorious at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa with the support of foreign fighters responding to the preaching of Innocent III. Many of these deserted because of the Spanish tolerance of the defeated Muslims, for whom the Reconquista was a war of domination rather than extermination. [186] In contrast the Christians formerly living under Muslim rule called Mozarabs had the Roman Rite relentlessly imposed on them and were absorbed into mainstream Catholicism. [187] Al-Andalus, Islamic Spain, was completely suppressed in 1492 when the Emirate of Granada surrendered. [188]

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