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Iceberg Twice Iceberg For Men 4.2 oz EDT Spray

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An iceberg is a piece of freshwater ice more than 15 m long [1] that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open (salt) water. [2] [3] Smaller chunks of floating glacially-derived ice are called "growlers" or "bergy bits". [4] [5] Much of an iceberg is below the water's surface, which led to the expression " tip of the iceberg" to illustrate a small part of a larger unseen issue. Icebergs are considered a serious maritime hazard. Icebergs lose mass due to melting, and calving. Melting can be due to solar radiation, or heat and salt transport from the ocean. Iceberg calving is generally enhanced by waves impacting the iceberg. The word iceberg is a partial loan translation from the Dutch word ijsberg, literally meaning ice mountain, [8] cognate to Danish isbjerg, German Eisberg, Low Saxon Iesbarg and Swedish isberg. Melting tends to be driven by the ocean, rather than solar radiation. Ocean driven melting is often modelled as

Icebergs deteriorate through melting and fracturing, which changes the mass m, as well as the surface area, volume, and stability of the iceberg. [12] [13] Iceberg deterioration and drift, therefore, are interconnected iceberg thermodynamics, and fracturing must be considered when modelling iceberg drift. [12] m d v → d t = − m f k → × v → + F → a + F → w + F → r + F → s + F → p , {\displaystyle m{\frac {d{\vec {v}}}{dt}}=-mf{\vec {k}}\times {\vec {v}}+{\vec {F}}_{\text{a}}+{\vec {F}}_{\text{w}}+{\vec {F}}_{\text{r}}+{\vec {F}}_{\text{s}}+{\vec {F}}_{\text{p}},} The largest icebergs recorded have been calved, or broken off, from the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica. Icebergs may reach a height of more than 100 metres (300ft) above the sea surface and have mass ranging from about 100,000 tonnes up to more than 10million tonnes. Icebergs or pieces of floating ice smaller than 5meters above the sea surface are classified as "bergy bits"; smaller than 1meter—"growlers". [9] The largest known iceberg in the North Atlantic was 168 metres (551ft) above sea level, reported by the USCG icebreaker Eastwind in 1958, making it the height of a 55-story building. These icebergs originate from the glaciers of western Greenland and may have interior temperatures of −15 to −20°C (5 to −4°F). [10] Grotto in an iceberg, photographed during the British Antarctic Expedition of 1911–1913, 5Jan 1911 Drift [ edit ] Northern edge of Iceberg B-15A in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 29 January 2001 Iceberg size classifications according to the International Ice Patrol [1] Size classwhere M b {\displaystyle M_{\text{b}}} is the melt rate in m/day, Δ u {\displaystyle \Delta u} is the relative velocity between the iceberg and the ocean, T 0 − T {\displaystyle T_{0}-T} is the temperature difference between the ocean and the iceberg, and L {\displaystyle L} is the length of the iceberg. K {\displaystyle K} is a constant based on properties of the iceberg and the ocean and is approximately 0.75 ∘ C − 1 m 0.4 day − 1 s 0.8 {\displaystyle 0.75 For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). An iceberg in the Arctic Ocean Icebergs in Greenland as filmed by NASA in 2015

where m is the iceberg mass, v the drift velocity, and the variables f, k, and F correspond to the Coriolis force, the vertical unit vector, and a given force. The subscripts a, w, r, s, and p correspond to the air drag, water drag, wave radiation force, sea ice drag, and the horizontal pressure gradient force. [11] [12]Typically about one-tenth of the volume of an iceberg is above water, which follows from Archimedes's Principle of buoyancy; the density of pure ice is about 920 kg/m 3 (57lb/cuft), and that of seawater about 1,025kg/m 3 (64lb/cuft). The contour of the underwater portion can be difficult to judge by looking at the portion above the surface.

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